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Sir Isaac Newton war ein englischer Naturforscher und Verwaltungsbeamter. In der Sprache seiner Zeit, die zwischen natürlicher Theologie, Naturwissenschaften, Alchemie und Philosophie noch nicht scharf trennte, wurde Newton als Philosoph. Sir Isaac Newton [ˌaɪzək ˈnjuːtən] (* Dezember / 4. Januar in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth in Lincolnshire; † März / März in​. Isaac Newton ist ein bedeutender Wissenschaftler. Wir liefern den Steckbrief zu Isaac Newton und berichten über die Gravitationslehre und Newtons Biografie. Bekanntestes Werk: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica () Bekannteste Entdeckung: Newtonsches Gravitationsgesetz Familie: Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton wurde am in Woolsthorpe geboren und starb am ​ in London. Er wurde nach dem Tode seines Vaters geboren und wuchs bei​.

Newton Isaac

Sir Isaac Newton ist der Verfasser der “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”, in der er die universelle Gravitation und die Bewegungsgesetze beschrieb. Dieses Gesetz zur klassischen Mechanik postulierte der berühmte Physiker Isaac Newton, der privat sehr einsam gewesen sein soll. Wenn es. Sir Isaac Newton [ˌaɪzək ˈnjuːtən] (* Dezember / 4. Januar in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth in Lincolnshire; † März / März in​. Industrie und Gewerbe konnten jedoch trotz hoch entwickelter Mechanik von der Wissenschaft zunächst wenig profitieren. Welche Bedeutung hat Isaac Newton für die Physik? Er veröffentlichte seine Ergebnisse allerdings erst in einem Anhang zu Opticks im Jahr Mit Payeer Werk wollte er insbesondere die Naturphilosophie von Descartes ablösen Principia philosophiae,obwohl er von diesem das Konzept der Trägheit übernehmen musste, das ein Zentralpunkt der newtonschen Mechanik wurde. Jetzt kostenlos testen oder Anmelden. In Bewegung. Dafür musste er als Diener für andere Studenten arbeiten. Deshalb zog er sich Beste Spielothek in LГ¶llinghausen finden für Schritt aus der öffentlichen Wissenschaft Prognose 1 Bundesliga und forschte meist nur noch allein. März in London. Sein Vorgänger Isaac Barrow, der sich zurückzog, hatte ihn selbst empfohlen. Newton Isaac Damit konnte es Isaac Newton umgehen, die Wirtschaft seines Vaters übernehmen zu müssen. Dabei wird gerne übersehen, dass Newtons Überlegungen auf einem Konzept beruhten, das durchaus nicht als objektiv wissenschaftlich gilt: der hermetischen Tradition, mit der er sich während der Beste Spielothek in Lechleiten finden — eingehend beschäftigt hatte. Dasselbe war langgezogen und von 2 geraden parallelen Linien begrenzt; die Enden waren halbkreisförmig. Das Beste Spielothek in Kiebitzreihe finden, das uns Isaac Newton auf dem Gebiet der Naturwissenschaften hinterlassen hat, ist immens: Mit seiner Gravitationstheorie konnte er belegen, dass die Anziehungskraft auf der Erde genauso funktioniert wie bei Himmelskörpern im All. Dann folgen die drei newtonschen Gesetze oder Axiomedie heute als TrägheitsgesetzPoker Namen newtonsches Grundgesetz und als Wechselwirkungsgesetz bezeichnet werden. I accept that my given data and my IP address is sent to a server in the USA only Beste Spielothek in GГјnzenhofen finden the purpose of spam prevention through the Akismet program.

Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology , but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death.

Politically and personally tied to the Whig party , Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge , in —90 and — He was knighted by Queen Anne in and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden — and Master — of the Royal Mint , as well as president of the Royal Society — Isaac Newton was born according to the Julian calendar , in use in England at the time on Christmas Day, 25 December NS 4 January [a] "an hour or two after midnight", [7] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth , a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.

His father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely , Newton was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug.

Newton disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham , which taught Latin and Greek and probably imparted a significant foundation of mathematics.

His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him a farmer, an occupation he hated. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student, [13] distinguishing himself mainly by building sundials and models of windmills.

In June , he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge , on the recommendation of his uncle Rev William Ayscough, who had studied there. He started as a subsizar —paying his way by performing valet 's duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in , guaranteeing him four more years until he could get his MA.

He set down in his notebook a series of " Quaestiones " about mechanical philosophy as he found it. In , he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus.

Soon after Newton had obtained his BA degree in August , the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague.

Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, [16] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus , [17] optics , and the law of gravitation.

In April , he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. However, by the issue could not be avoided and by then his unconventional views stood in the way.

His studies had impressed the Lucasian professor Isaac Barrow , who was more anxious to develop his own religious and administrative potential he became master of Trinity two years later ; in Newton succeeded him, only one year after receiving his MA.

Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied. Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of calculus the Leibniz—Newton calculus controversy.

Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently, although with very different mathematical notations.

Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until , and did not give a full account until , while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in Leibniz's notation and "differential Method", nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations, were adopted by continental European mathematicians, and after or so, also by British mathematicians.

Such a suggestion fails to account for the calculus in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself and in its forerunner manuscripts, such as De motu corporum in gyrum of ; this content has been pointed out by critics [ Like whom?

His work extensively uses calculus in geometric form based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishingly small quantities: in the Principia itself, Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of "the method of first and last ratios" [25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form, [26] remarking also that "hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles.

Because of this, the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times [28] and in Newton's time "nearly all of it is of this calculus.

Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.

In , Duillier started to write a new version of Newton's Principia , and corresponded with Leibniz. Starting in , other members [ who?

Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem , valid for any exponent.

He discovered Newton's identities , Newton's method , classified cubic plane curves polynomials of degree three in two variables , made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences , and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.

He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms a precursor to Euler's summation formula and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series.

Newton's work on infinite series was inspired by Simon Stevin 's decimals. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in , on Barrow's recommendation.

During that time, any Fellow of a college at Cambridge or Oxford was required to take holy orders and become an ordained Anglican priest.

Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II , whose permission was needed, accepted this argument.

Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. In , Newton observed that the spectrum of colours exiting a prism in the position of minimum deviation is oblong, even when the light ray entering the prism is circular, which is to say, the prism refracts different colours by different angles.

From to , Newton lectured on optics. He showed that coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects and that regardless of whether reflected, scattered, or transmitted, the light remains the same colour.

Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.

This is known as Newton's theory of colour. From this work, he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours chromatic aberration.

As a proof of the concept, he constructed a telescope using reflective mirrors instead of lenses as the objective to bypass that problem.

Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal , using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes.

In late , [48] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. It was about eight inches long and it gave a clearer and larger image.

In , the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.

Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in —80, when Hooke, appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions, [51] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.

But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium.

He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films Opticks Bk.

II, Props. However, later physicists favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns and the general phenomenon of diffraction.

Today's quantum mechanics , photons , and the idea of wave—particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.

In his Hypothesis of Light of , Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.

The contact with the Cambridge Platonist philosopher Henry More revived his interest in alchemy. John Maynard Keynes , who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians.

Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance , across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.

In , Newton published Opticks , in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, In his book Opticks , Newton was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander, and also the use of multiple-prism arrays.

Also, the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. Subsequent to Newton, much has been amended. Young and Fresnel combined Newton's particle theory with Huygens' wave theory to show that colour is the visible manifestation of light's wavelength.

Science also slowly came to realise the difference between perception of colour and mathematisable optics. The German poet and scientist, Goethe , could not shake the Newtonian foundation but "one hole Goethe did find in Newton's armour, Newton had committed himself to the doctrine that refraction without colour was impossible.

He, therefore, thought that the object-glasses of telescopes must forever remain imperfect, achromatism and refraction being incompatible.

This inference was proved by Dollond to be wrong. In , Newton returned to his work on celestial mechanics by considering gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in —80 with Hooke, who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.

Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum , a tract written on about nine sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December The Principia was published on 5 July with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.

In this work, Newton stated the three universal laws of motion. Together, these laws describe the relationship between any object, the forces acting upon it and the resulting motion, laying the foundation for classical mechanics.

They contributed to many advances during the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not improved upon for more than years. Many of these advancements continue to be the underpinnings of non-relativistic technologies in the modern world.

He used the Latin word gravitas weight for the effect that would become known as gravity , and defined the law of universal gravitation. In the same work, Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis using 'first and last ratios', gave the first analytical determination based on Boyle's law of the speed of sound in air, inferred the oblateness of Earth's spheroidal figure, accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness, initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon , provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets, and much more.

Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the Solar System—developed in a somewhat modern way because already in the mids he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the Solar System.

Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing " occult agencies" into science.

Here Newton used what became his famous expression "hypotheses non-fingo" [65]. With the Principia , Newton became internationally recognised.

Newton found 72 of the 78 "species" of cubic curves and categorised them into four types. Newton also claimed that the four types could be obtained by plane projection from one of them, and this was proved in , four years after his death.

In the s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal and symbolic interpretation of the Bible. A manuscript Newton sent to John Locke in which he disputed the fidelity of 1 John —the Johannine Comma —and its fidelity to the original manuscripts of the New Testament, remained unpublished until Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England for Cambridge University in and , but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.

Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in , a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax , then Chancellor of the Exchequer.

He took charge of England's great recoining, trod on the toes of Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower, and secured the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley.

He retired from his Cambridge duties in , and exercised his authority to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Counterfeiting was high treason , punishable by the felon being hanged, drawn and quartered.

Despite this, convicting even the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult, however, Newton proved equal to the task. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties.

The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the parliamentary election in May , rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint.

It is a matter of debate as to whether he intended to do this or not. Toward the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park , near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.

Although it was claimed that he was once engaged, [b] Newton never married. The French writer and philosopher Voltaire , who was in London at the time of Newton's funeral, said that he "was never sensible to any passion, was not subject to the common frailties of mankind, nor had any commerce with women—a circumstance which was assured me by the physician and surgeon who attended him in his last moments".

Newton had a close friendship with the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier , whom he met in London around [67] —some of their correspondence has survived.

The mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish.

Newton was relatively modest about his achievements, writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.

Two writers think that the above quotation, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke said to have been short and hunchbacked , rather than—or in addition to—a statement of modesty.

I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

Newton's monument can be seen in Westminster Abbey , at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb.

It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack — in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent.

The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design.

Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.

Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced.

Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners.

Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St.

Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey , ii, — Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.

A large bronze statue, Newton, after William Blake , by Eduardo Paolozzi , dated and inspired by Blake 's etching , dominates the piazza of the British Library in London.

Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity, [] with one historian labelling him a heretic.

By , he had started to record his theological researches in notebooks which he showed to no one and which have only recently [ when?

They demonstrate an extensive knowledge of early Church writings and show that in the conflict between Athanasius and Arius which defined the Creed , he took the side of Arius, the loser, who rejected the conventional view of the Trinity.

Newton "recognized Christ as a divine mediator between God and man, who was subordinate to the Father who created him. Newton tried unsuccessfully to obtain one of the two fellowships that exempted the holder from the ordination requirement.

At the last moment in he received a dispensation from the government that excused him and all future holders of the Lucasian chair.

In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry , to him the fundamental sin. Snobelen wrote, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unraveling his personal beliefs.

In a minority position, T. Pfizenmaier offers a more nuanced view, arguing that Newton held closer to the Semi-Arian view of the Trinity that Jesus Christ was of a "similar substance" homoiousios from the Father rather than the orthodox view that Jesus Christ is of the "same substance" of the Father homoousios as endorsed by modern Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Protestants.

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock.

He said, "So then gravity may put the planets into motion, but without the Divine Power it could never put them into such a circulating motion, as they have about the sun".

Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza.

The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".

But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.

He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

A century later, Pierre-Simon Laplace 's work Celestial Mechanics had a natural explanation for why the planet orbits do not require periodic divine intervention.

Scholars long debated whether Newton disputed the doctrine of the Trinity. His first biographer, Sir David Brewster , who compiled his manuscripts, interpreted Newton as questioning the veracity of some passages used to support the Trinity, but never denying the doctrine of the Trinity as such.

Newton and Robert Boyle 's approach to the mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts , and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.

The attacks made against pre- Enlightenment " magical thinking ", and the mystical elements of Christianity , were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the universe.

Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.

In a manuscript he wrote in never intended to be published , he mentions the date of , but it is not given as a date for the end of days.

It has been falsely reported as a prediction. He was against date setting for the end of days, concerned that this would put Christianity into disrepute.

And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of [long-]lived kingdoms the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A.

It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Christ comes as a thief in the night, and it is not for us to know the times and seasons which God hath put into his own breast.

Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone. That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find.

Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton's papers, about one million deal with alchemy.

Many of Newton's writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations. In , after spending sixteen years cataloguing Newton's papers, Cambridge University kept a small number and returned the rest to the Earl of Portsmouth.

In , a descendant offered the papers for sale at Sotheby's. Keynes went on to reassemble an estimated half of Newton's collection of papers on alchemy before donating his collection to Cambridge University in All of Newton's known writings on alchemy are currently being put online in a project undertaken by Indiana University : "The Chymistry of Isaac Newton" [] and summarised in a book.

Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus.

Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues.

We refer to Newton's involvement in the discipline of alchemy, or as it was often called in seventeenth-century England, "chymistry.

Charles Coulston Gillispie disputes that Newton ever practised alchemy, saying that "his chemistry was in the spirit of Boyle's corpuscular philosophy.

In June , two unpublished pages of Newton's notes on Jan Baptist van Helmont 's book on plague, De Peste [] , were being auctioned online by Bonham's.

Newton's analysis of this book, which he made in Cambridge while protecting himself from London's infection , is the most substantial written statement he is known to have made about the plague, according to Bonham's.

As far as the therapy is concerned, Newton writes that "the best is a toad suspended by the legs in a chimney for three days, which at last vomited up earth with various insects in it, on to a dish of yellow wax, and shortly after died.

Combining powdered toad with the excretions and serum made into lozenges and worn about the affected area drove away the contagion and drew out the poison".

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of nature and natural law to every physical and social field of the day.

In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.

It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.

Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.

Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity at any single moment, [] acquaintances of Newton such as William Stukeley , whose manuscript account of has been made available by the Royal Society do in fact confirm the incident, though not the apocryphal version that the apple actually hit Newton's head.

John Conduitt , Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: [].

In the year he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity which brought an apple from a tree to the ground was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.

It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however, it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.

Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement.

He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation". Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes.

The King's School, Grantham claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later.

The staff of the now National Trust -owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton.

A descendant of the original tree [] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.

The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale in Kent [] can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent , a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the scientist. For the agriculturalist, see Isaac Newton agriculturalist.

Influential British physicist and mathematician. Portrait of Newton at 46 by Godfrey Kneller , Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth , Lincolnshire , England.

Kensington , Middlesex , England. Isaac Barrow [4] Benjamin Pulleyn [5] [6]. Roger Cotes William Whiston. Main article: Early life of Isaac Newton.

Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica.

Main article: Cubic plane curve. Main article: Later life of Isaac Newton. See also: Isaac Newton in popular culture. Main article: Religious views of Isaac Newton.

See also: Isaac Newton's occult studies and eschatology. See also: Writing of Principia Mathematica. Newton, Isaac. University of California Press , Brackenridge, J.

The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Opticks 4th ed. New York: Dover Publications. Newton, I. Motte, rev. Florian Cajori. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. London: A. Millar and J. Nourse Newton, I.

Cohen and R. Hall and M. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' London: Dawson. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus his birth is recorded as taking place on 25 December Old Style, but can be converted to a New Style modern date of 4 January By the time of his death, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days.

Moreover, he died in the period after the start of the New Style year on 1 January, but before that of the Old Style new year on 25 March.

His death occurred on 20 March according to the Old Style calendar, but the year is usually adjusted to A full conversion to New Style gives the date 31 March Charles Hutton , who in the late eighteenth century collected oral traditions about earlier scientists, declared that there "do not appear to be any sufficient reason for his never marrying, if he had an inclination so to do.

It is much more likely that he had a constitutional indifference to the state, and even to the sex in general. The Renaissance Mathematicus.

Retrieved 20 March United Press International. Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 4 September London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 16 March Notes, No.

Archived from the original on 25 February Astro-Databank Wiki. Retrieved 4 January Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.

As with many of the leading scientists of the age, he left behind in Grantham anecdotes about his mechanical ability and his skill in building models of machines, such as clocks and windmills.

At the school he apparently gained a firm command of Latin but probably received no more than a smattering of arithmetic. By June , he was ready to matriculate at Trinity College , Cambridge , somewhat older than the other undergraduates because of his interrupted education.

When Newton arrived in Cambridge in , the movement now known as the Scientific Revolution was well advanced, and many of the works basic to modern science had appeared.

Astronomers from Copernicus to Kepler had elaborated the heliocentric system of the universe. Galileo had proposed the foundations of a new mechanics built on the principle of inertia.

Led by Descartes , philosophers had begun to formulate a new conception of nature as an intricate, impersonal, and inert machine. Yet as far as the universities of Europe, including Cambridge, were concerned, all this might well have never happened.

They continued to be the strongholds of outmoded Aristotelianism , which rested on a geocentric view of the universe and dealt with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

Even though the new philosophy was not in the curriculum, it was in the air. He had thoroughly mastered the works of Descartes and had also discovered that the French philosopher Pierre Gassendi had revived atomism , an alternative mechanical system to explain nature.

Significantly, he had read Henry More , the Cambridge Platonist, and was thereby introduced to another intellectual world, the magical Hermetic tradition, which sought to explain natural phenomena in terms of alchemical and magical concepts.

The two traditions of natural philosophy, the mechanical and the Hermetic, antithetical though they appear, continued to influence his thought and in their tension supplied the fundamental theme of his scientific career.

He then reached back for the support of classical geometry. Within little more than a year, he had mastered the literature; and, pursuing his own line of analysis, he began to move into new territory.

He discovered the binomial theorem , and he developed the calculus , a more powerful form of analysis that employs infinitesimal considerations in finding the slopes of curves and areas under curves.

On his own, without formal guidance, he had sought out the new philosophy and the new mathematics and made them his own, but he had confined the progress of his studies to his notebooks.

Then, in , the plague closed the university, and for most of the following two years he was forced to stay at his home, contemplating at leisure what he had learned.

It was during this time that he examined the elements of circular motion and, applying his analysis to the Moon and the planets , derived the inverse square relation that the radially directed force acting on a planet decreases with the square of its distance from the Sun —which was later crucial to the law of universal gravitation.

The world heard nothing of these discoveries. Isaac Newton. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.

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Newton Isaac Sir Isaac Newton

Januar in Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire geboren. So zieht auch der Apfel die Erde an, genau so, wie die Erde den Apfel. Deshalb steht auf seiner Grabinschrift: Nature and natures laws Wiesbaden Spielbank hid in night; God said "Let Newton be! Darüber hinaus beschäftigt sich Newton in diesem Teil mit der Massenanziehung Gravitation. Dabei erkannte er die Transzendenz aller Spiralen. Jahrhundert Filmgesichter Agentur Berlin

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Isaac Newton: The Man and his Hidden Life

Newton Isaac - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Nach dem Mittagessen, da es ein schöner warmer Tag war, gingen wir in den Garten und tranken Tee zu zweit im Schatten einiger Apfelbäume. Dort wurde ihm im Jahr die Präsidentschaft der Royal Society übertragen. Jahrhundert hinein zum Vorbild für andere Teildisziplinen der Physik und übte auch wesentlichen Einfluss auf das Weltbild aus. Vielen Dank! Wieder folgte ein Streit mit Hooke — dieses Mal über das Gravitationsgesetz. Darüber sprechen wir in dieser Ausgabe Banken In Oberstdorf Physikalischen Soiree. Am berühmtesten ist Newton in der Mathematik für seine Entdeckung der Infinitesimalrechnung, die er etwa zeitgleich mit Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz machte. Damals gab es aber noch keine LED-Lampen. Jahrhundert Physiker Das Sonnenlicht besteht aus Strahlen verschiedener Brechbarkeit. Versteigerung Zoll Verlaufe der Unterhaltung bemerkte er zu mir, dass er sich genau in derselben Situation befand, als die Idee der Gravitation in ihm auftauchte. Bis zu seinem Tod am Spielsucht Therapie Bayern Brockhaus, Isaac Newton. Den Druck in einer Flüssigkeit, der infolge der Gewichtskraft einer darüber liegenden Flüssigkeitssäule entsteht, Produkt Online-Schulung Preise familie. Cangoroo, W. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatryto him the fundamental sin. Main article: Religious views of Isaac Newton. In opticshis discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of Beste Spielothek in Homberg finden into the science of light and laid the foundation for Steindamm physical optics. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge — The author's final comment on this episode is:"The mechanization of the world picture led with irresistible coherence to the conception of God as a sort of 'retired engineer', and from here to God's complete elimination it took just one more step". National Geographic. He discovered Newton's identitiesNewton's methodclassified cubic plane curves Beste Spielothek in Holzlar finden of degree three in two variablesmade substantial contributions to the theory of finite differencesand was Spiele Crystal Ball - Golden Nights Bonus - Video Slots Online first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. Thomson thomson Evangelista Torricelli torr. Isaac Newton. * Woolsthorpe † Kensington. Er war ein englischer Physiker, Mathematiker und Astronom und. Sir Isaac Newton ist der Verfasser der “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”, in der er die universelle Gravitation und die Bewegungsgesetze beschrieb. Dieses Gesetz zur klassischen Mechanik postulierte der berühmte Physiker Isaac Newton, der privat sehr einsam gewesen sein soll. Wenn es. Name: Isaac Newton. Geboren: in Woolsthorpe (England). Gestorben: in London. Lehr-/Forschungsgebiete: Algebra, Infinitesimalrechnung. Isaac Newton, Sir (seit ), war ein englischer Physiker, Mathematiker und Astronom, * in Woolsthorpe.

Newton Isaac Forscher und königlicher Münzmeister

In Österreich gibt es seit dem 2. Paypal Konto Sicher Hooke, der zur Planetenbewegung erfolgreich geforscht hatte, wurde von Newton nicht anerkannt, obwohl er von dessen Erkenntnissen profitiert hatte. Im Rahmen moderner physikalischer Theorien wie der Quantenmechanik und der Relativitätstheorie gelten Newtons Gesetze zwar nur eingeschränkt — dennoch sind mit ihrer Hilfe zuverlässige Vorhersagen über die Mobile Slots von Körpern möglich. War ja klar, das die ganzen ungebildeten Ihn so nannten, wenn die doch nichts von dem verstanden, was er entdeckt hatte. Lexikon Share. Das Spiele Super Times Pay Hot Roll - Video Slots Online war ein Prioritätsstreit, der bis zum Tod Newtons anhielt. Und trotz Mathematikunterrichts, der vielen nicht so viel Freude Was Ist Ein Pin Twin, erhält dieses Hilfsmittel des Lernens viel Sympathie. Letzteres sollte den Lichtstrahl, der durch die Öffnung eindrang, ablenken, ihn Spiele The Sakura Legend - Video Slots Online nach der gegenüberliegenden Wand des Zimmers werfen und dort ein farbiges Bild der Sonne erzeugen. Später wurden achromatische Linsenkombinationen aus Gläsern verschiedener Brechungseigenschaften für Fernrohre entwickelt.

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Neil Degrasse Tyson on Isaac Newton

Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey , ii, — Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.

A large bronze statue, Newton, after William Blake , by Eduardo Paolozzi , dated and inspired by Blake 's etching , dominates the piazza of the British Library in London.

Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity, [] with one historian labelling him a heretic.

By , he had started to record his theological researches in notebooks which he showed to no one and which have only recently [ when?

They demonstrate an extensive knowledge of early Church writings and show that in the conflict between Athanasius and Arius which defined the Creed , he took the side of Arius, the loser, who rejected the conventional view of the Trinity.

Newton "recognized Christ as a divine mediator between God and man, who was subordinate to the Father who created him. Newton tried unsuccessfully to obtain one of the two fellowships that exempted the holder from the ordination requirement.

At the last moment in he received a dispensation from the government that excused him and all future holders of the Lucasian chair.

In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry , to him the fundamental sin. Snobelen wrote, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unraveling his personal beliefs.

In a minority position, T. Pfizenmaier offers a more nuanced view, arguing that Newton held closer to the Semi-Arian view of the Trinity that Jesus Christ was of a "similar substance" homoiousios from the Father rather than the orthodox view that Jesus Christ is of the "same substance" of the Father homoousios as endorsed by modern Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Protestants.

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock.

He said, "So then gravity may put the planets into motion, but without the Divine Power it could never put them into such a circulating motion, as they have about the sun".

Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza.

The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".

But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.

He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

A century later, Pierre-Simon Laplace 's work Celestial Mechanics had a natural explanation for why the planet orbits do not require periodic divine intervention.

Scholars long debated whether Newton disputed the doctrine of the Trinity. His first biographer, Sir David Brewster , who compiled his manuscripts, interpreted Newton as questioning the veracity of some passages used to support the Trinity, but never denying the doctrine of the Trinity as such.

Newton and Robert Boyle 's approach to the mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts , and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.

The attacks made against pre- Enlightenment " magical thinking ", and the mystical elements of Christianity , were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the universe.

Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.

In a manuscript he wrote in never intended to be published , he mentions the date of , but it is not given as a date for the end of days. It has been falsely reported as a prediction.

He was against date setting for the end of days, concerned that this would put Christianity into disrepute. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of [long-]lived kingdoms the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A.

It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Christ comes as a thief in the night, and it is not for us to know the times and seasons which God hath put into his own breast.

Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone. That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find.

Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton's papers, about one million deal with alchemy. Many of Newton's writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations.

In , after spending sixteen years cataloguing Newton's papers, Cambridge University kept a small number and returned the rest to the Earl of Portsmouth.

In , a descendant offered the papers for sale at Sotheby's. Keynes went on to reassemble an estimated half of Newton's collection of papers on alchemy before donating his collection to Cambridge University in All of Newton's known writings on alchemy are currently being put online in a project undertaken by Indiana University : "The Chymistry of Isaac Newton" [] and summarised in a book.

Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus.

Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues.

We refer to Newton's involvement in the discipline of alchemy, or as it was often called in seventeenth-century England, "chymistry.

Charles Coulston Gillispie disputes that Newton ever practised alchemy, saying that "his chemistry was in the spirit of Boyle's corpuscular philosophy.

In June , two unpublished pages of Newton's notes on Jan Baptist van Helmont 's book on plague, De Peste [] , were being auctioned online by Bonham's.

Newton's analysis of this book, which he made in Cambridge while protecting himself from London's infection , is the most substantial written statement he is known to have made about the plague, according to Bonham's.

As far as the therapy is concerned, Newton writes that "the best is a toad suspended by the legs in a chimney for three days, which at last vomited up earth with various insects in it, on to a dish of yellow wax, and shortly after died.

Combining powdered toad with the excretions and serum made into lozenges and worn about the affected area drove away the contagion and drew out the poison".

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of nature and natural law to every physical and social field of the day.

In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded. It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.

Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity at any single moment, [] acquaintances of Newton such as William Stukeley , whose manuscript account of has been made available by the Royal Society do in fact confirm the incident, though not the apocryphal version that the apple actually hit Newton's head.

John Conduitt , Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: [].

In the year he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity which brought an apple from a tree to the ground was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.

It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however, it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.

Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement.

He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".

Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later.

The staff of the now National Trust -owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton.

A descendant of the original tree [] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there.

The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale in Kent [] can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent , a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the scientist. For the agriculturalist, see Isaac Newton agriculturalist.

Influential British physicist and mathematician. Portrait of Newton at 46 by Godfrey Kneller , Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth , Lincolnshire , England.

Kensington , Middlesex , England. Isaac Barrow [4] Benjamin Pulleyn [5] [6]. Roger Cotes William Whiston.

Main article: Early life of Isaac Newton. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.

Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica. Main article: Cubic plane curve. Main article: Later life of Isaac Newton.

See also: Isaac Newton in popular culture. Main article: Religious views of Isaac Newton. See also: Isaac Newton's occult studies and eschatology.

See also: Writing of Principia Mathematica. Newton, Isaac. University of California Press , Brackenridge, J. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton.

Opticks 4th ed. New York: Dover Publications. Newton, I. Motte, rev. Florian Cajori. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. London: A. Millar and J. Nourse Newton, I. Cohen and R. Hall and M. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' London: Dawson.

At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus his birth is recorded as taking place on 25 December Old Style, but can be converted to a New Style modern date of 4 January By the time of his death, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days.

Moreover, he died in the period after the start of the New Style year on 1 January, but before that of the Old Style new year on 25 March.

His death occurred on 20 March according to the Old Style calendar, but the year is usually adjusted to A full conversion to New Style gives the date 31 March Charles Hutton , who in the late eighteenth century collected oral traditions about earlier scientists, declared that there "do not appear to be any sufficient reason for his never marrying, if he had an inclination so to do.

It is much more likely that he had a constitutional indifference to the state, and even to the sex in general. The Renaissance Mathematicus.

Retrieved 20 March United Press International. Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 4 September London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 16 March Notes, No.

Archived from the original on 25 February Astro-Databank Wiki. Retrieved 4 January Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Bechler, ed.

Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Digital Library.

Retrieved 10 January A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. Famous Men of Science. New York: Thomas Y.

Journal for the History of Astronomy. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. March Foundations of Science. The History of the Telescope.

Oxford University Press. James R. Graham's Home Page. Retrieved 3 February Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.

This is the one dated 23 February , in which Newton described his first reflecting telescope, constructed it seems near the close of the previous year.

The Newton Project. Retrieved 6 October Turnbull, Cambridge University Press ; at p. MacMillan St. Martin's Press.

December Query 8. Optics and Photonics News. Bibcode : OptPN.. Popular Science Monthly Volume 17, July. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton, — Physical Chemistry: Multidisciplinary Applications in Society.

Amsterdam: Elsevier. Hatch, University of Florida. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 13 August The Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved 7 September Crime Fighter? Science Friday. Retrieved 1 August Newton and the counterfeiter: the unknown detective career of the world's greatest scientist.

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Historic Heraldry of Britain 2nd ed. London and Chichester: Phillimore. London: Taylor and Co. History Channel.

Retrieved 18 August Isaac Newton. Royal Numismatic Society. Cambridge Historical Journal. Georgia Tech Research News. Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 30 July Business Insider.

Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 23 September The London Gazette. Cartesian Empiricism. Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. Eric W.

Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 25 April A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary. Letters on England. A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary Containing Retrieved 11 September New York: Random House.

Janus database. Retrieved 22 March Online Archive of California. Lagrange," Oeuvres de Lagrange I. Paris, , p. Newton: Understanding the Cosmos.

Translated by Paris, I. The New York Times. Retrieved 12 July Guinness World Records The Royal Society. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists; Newton runner-up".

BBC News. Retrieved 17 January Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 13 November Bank of England. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 27 August Rice University.

Retrieved 5 July British Journal for the History of Science. Journal of the History of Ideas. Archived from the original PDF on 7 October The Deist Minimum January Isaaci Newtoni Opera quae exstant omnia.

London: Joannes Nichols. Meier, A Marginal Jew , v. Query Natural History Magazine. Retrieved 7 January The author's final comment on this episode is:"The mechanization of the world picture led with irresistible coherence to the conception of God as a sort of 'retired engineer', and from here to God's complete elimination it took just one more step".

David Brewster. William Blake Archive. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 25 September The Newtonians and the English Revolution: — Cornell University Press.

Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. Associated Press.

Archived from the original on 13 August In Heinlein, Robert A. Tomorrow, the Stars 16th ed. First published in Galaxy magazine, July ; Variously titled Appointment in Tomorrow ; in some reprints of Leiber's story the sentence 'That was the pebble..

Chemical Heritage Magazine. National Geographic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Indiana University, Bloomington. Literary Review.

Retrieved 6 March Yet as far as the universities of Europe, including Cambridge, were concerned, all this might well have never happened.

They continued to be the strongholds of outmoded Aristotelianism , which rested on a geocentric view of the universe and dealt with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

Even though the new philosophy was not in the curriculum, it was in the air. He had thoroughly mastered the works of Descartes and had also discovered that the French philosopher Pierre Gassendi had revived atomism , an alternative mechanical system to explain nature.

Significantly, he had read Henry More , the Cambridge Platonist, and was thereby introduced to another intellectual world, the magical Hermetic tradition, which sought to explain natural phenomena in terms of alchemical and magical concepts.

The two traditions of natural philosophy, the mechanical and the Hermetic, antithetical though they appear, continued to influence his thought and in their tension supplied the fundamental theme of his scientific career.

He then reached back for the support of classical geometry. Within little more than a year, he had mastered the literature; and, pursuing his own line of analysis, he began to move into new territory.

He discovered the binomial theorem , and he developed the calculus , a more powerful form of analysis that employs infinitesimal considerations in finding the slopes of curves and areas under curves.

On his own, without formal guidance, he had sought out the new philosophy and the new mathematics and made them his own, but he had confined the progress of his studies to his notebooks.

Then, in , the plague closed the university, and for most of the following two years he was forced to stay at his home, contemplating at leisure what he had learned.

It was during this time that he examined the elements of circular motion and, applying his analysis to the Moon and the planets , derived the inverse square relation that the radially directed force acting on a planet decreases with the square of its distance from the Sun —which was later crucial to the law of universal gravitation.

The world heard nothing of these discoveries. Isaac Newton. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.

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Newton Isaac - Wie Isaac Newton lebte

Aus: Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions and colours of light by Sir Isaac Newton, London Keine Kosten. Er entwickelte das Spiegelteleskop, wie wir es heute kennen. Newton starb in London. Das Amt des Wardein wurde allgemein als lukrative Pfründe angesehen, Newton aber nahm seine Aufgabe ernst.

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